Category Question: Winemaking

Table grapes are more pleasing to eat because unlike wine grapes, they have thin skins and crisp, juicy pulp. They also have more acidity than sugar, so they are not as cloyingly sweet.

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Residual sugar refers to the amount of sugar that was not transformed into alcohol during fermentation and that remains in the finished wine. The more residual sugar that remains, the sweeter the wine will be.

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The large solid mass of skins, seeds, and stems–called the cap– floats on the surface of the must during the alcoholic fermentation process due to the action of carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Classico is a term used for Italian DOCG wines with a long vitivinicultural tradition. It is used, for example, to differentiate between the DOCG Chianti and the DOCG Chianti Classico.

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Chilean Decree Law Nº 464 establishes that for a wine to show a Denomination of Origin on its label, a minimum of 75% of its grapes must come from that DO and be authorized for use in winemaking.

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Wine contains dietary antioxidants that prevent or delay the oxidation of cells in the body. These antioxidants (polyphenols, especially flavonoids) come from the grapes.

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All three. The more color and tannins contained in the grape skins and the longer their contact with the must during or after alcoholic fermentation, the more intense the color of the wine will be. Variety and climate are responsible for the rest.

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Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced during alcoholic fermentation. A bit of CO2 in finished wines lends freshness and protects against oxidation.

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Daily temperature oscillation refers to the difference between the daytime high and the nighttime low on a given day. A large variance encourages vine development because the vines stop photosynthesis during the cool nights and store their aromas.

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An enologist is in charge of turning grapes into wine. He or she works closely with a viticulturist (grape grower) and must have knowledge of chemistry, viticulture, and wine tasting.

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With very few exceptions, the pulp of the red grapes used to make fine wines is green. The pink or red color of the wine depends upon the color of the grape skins and the amount of time the colorless juice remained in contact with them.

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Water is the major component of grape juice and wine, where it makes up approximately 85% of its volume.

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High quality rosé wine is made with the juice (must) of red grapes that has a short period of contact with the skins and so has little color. The must is then separated from the skins and vinified as if it were a white wine.

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White wines are usually made with green or yellow-skinned grapes, but they can also be made with the juice of red grapes if does not come into contact with the skins after pressing. In both cases, the skins are pressed before alcoholic fermentation.

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In oxygen-rich environments wine is defenseless against the attack of acetic bacteria, and once attacked, the wine develops new aromatic compounds, including the harmful acetic acid, which produces an unpleasant vinegary smell.

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